Our neighbors to the south are currently enjoying a pretty good salmon bite.Charter and sport boats alike have scored limits since the weekend on some very nice sized kings. Out of Shelter Cove, Jake Mitchell of Sea Hawk Sport Fishing mooched up limits of salmon for his customers on Tuesday fishing in 60 feet of water. A few sport guys also did well mooching over the weekend. The bite out of Fort Bragg has been good since the opener, with quite a few limits being reported. Most of the action …
Three Darwinist professors lamented recently in Science1 that few scientists are making like a tree: “‘tree thinking’ remains widely practiced only by professional evolutionary biologists,” they said. And just what is “tree thinking”? It is basically thinking like Darwin; i.e., looking at the living world with phylogenetic glasses:The central claim of the theory of evolution as laid out in 1859 by Charles Darwin in The Origin of Species is that living species, despite their diversity in form and way of life, are the products of descent (with modification) from common ancestors. To communicate this idea, Darwin developed the metaphor of the ‘tree of life.’ In this comparison, living species trace backward in time to common ancestors in the same way that separate twigs on a tree trace back to the same major branches. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)What prompted this editorial? “This is a particular cause for concern at a time when the teaching of evolution is being challenged,” they say. But there’s a positive side, too: “because evolutionary trees serve not only as tools for biological researchers across disciplines but also as the main framework within which evidence for evolution is evaluated.” While tree-thinking is useful for everyone, the art of generating trees is best left to the wizards:At the outset, it is important to clarify that tree thinking does not necessarily entail knowing how phylogenies are inferred by practicing systematists. Anyone who has looked into phylogenetics from outside the field of evolutionary biology knows that it is complex and rapidly changing, replete with a dense statistical literature, impassioned philosophical debates, and an abundance of highly technical computer programs. Fortunately, one can interpret trees and use them for organizing knowledge of biodiversity without knowing the details of phylogenetic inference. The reverse is, however, not true. One cannot really understand phylogenetics if one is not clear what an evolutionary tree is.They provide some examples of potential sources of confusion. “Although closely related species tend to be similar to one another, this is not necessarily the case if the rate of evolution is not uniform:” for instance. “Crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards, even though crocodiles are indisputably more similar in external appearance to lizards.” A statement like that would surely shock a novice. It’s not the outward similarity, they explain, but the phylogenetic inference that counts. Evolutionary history is not progressive, nor is it uniform. In addition, we see only the tips of the branches inhabited by living or fossil organisms; occupants of the nodes (common ancestors of the branches) are only inferred, and may not have looked like anything alive today. “Thus, for all its importance,” they caution, “tree thinking is fraught with challenges.” But then how can anything fraught with challenges be important or useful? Let’s revisit their motives for proposing that tree-thinking should extend beyond the cloisters of evolutionary systematics. Here’s the bottom line:Tree thinking belongs alongside natural selection as a major theme in evolution training. Further, trees could be used throughout biological training as an efficient way to present information on the distribution of traits among species. To this end, what is needed are more resources: computer programs, educational strategies, and accessible presentations of current phylogenetic knowledge. Phylogenetic trees are the most direct representation of the principle of common ancestry–the very core of evolutionary theory–and thus they must find a more prominent place in the general public’s understanding of evolution. As philosopher of science Robert O’Hara stated, “just as beginning students in geography need to be taught how to read maps, so beginning students in biology should be taught how to read trees and to understand what trees communicate.” Among other benefits, as the concept of tree thinking becomes better understood by those in the sciences, we can hope that a wider segment of society will come to appreciate the overwhelming evidence for common ancestry and the scientific rigor of evolutionary biology.1David A. Baum, Stacey DeWitt Smith, Samuel S. S. Donovan, ”Evolution: The Tree-Thinking Challenge,” Science, Vol 310, Issue 5750, 979-980 , 11 November 2005, [DOI: 10.1126/science.1117727].This article is very revealing. The best way to understand it is to imagine oneself in ancient Babylonia, listening to some wizards of hepatoscopy (divination by reading the liver) lamenting the paucity of awareness of their craft among the astrologers and the general public. They make a pitch in the Chaldean Journal about how useful hepatoscopy is to the general science of divination. While admitting that their charts and diagrams are difficult to devise, they nevertheless argue that the charts are useful representations of fundamental insights, and took an awful lot of hard work to produce. Their recommendation is to print more copies of their liver diagrams and instruct the young in the basic concepts of interpreting livers until the concept of liver-thinking becomes better understood and appreciated. Far off? Not by much. Look what they admitted: phylogenetic inference from the actual data of biodiversity is “fraught with challenges.” The field is “complex and rapidly changing.” It has its own “dense statistical literature” impenetrable to those “outsiders” of the art. It is an arena of “impassioned philosophical debates.” One can imagine Babylonian hepatomancers in similar circumstances, adjusting their charts each time the king loses a battle despite their prognostication. No problem; it’s all part of the “scientific rigor” of The Craft. Notice also that tree-thinking is an a priori stance one takes before looking at the data. It’s a world view: “the main framework within which evidence for evolution is evaluated.” But what is being evaluated: the evidence, or the framework? Since everything must fit into The Framework from the outset, no amount of change, debate, challenge or complexity endangers The Framework. It is the grid through which all data must be sifted, the colored glass through which all wavelengths must be filtered. This is very different from a geographical map with which they compare it (see analogy in the Baloney Detector). A map represents visible data that can be corroborated in the present; a phylogenetic tree infers relationships in the unobservable past. We do not conform the data to the map, but the other way around. Not so with the Darwin Tree of Life. Evidence is really secondary, because The Framework is already established. Branches may shift here or there, but The Tree, as Platonic form, remains sacrosanct. (You’ll notice that these wizards only bluffed about the “overwhelming evidence” for common ancestry and the “scientific rigor” of evolutionary biology; see 08/11/2003 and 06/13/2003 entries). Rightly did Jonathan Wells classify Darwin’s tree of life as an Icon of Evolution. An icon is a symbol, a representation of an article of faith. The early icons of Jesus were not evidence for his divinity; they were reminders and representations of what the faithful already believed about him. Proof of his divinity came not from the icons, but from the historical facts and eyewitness accounts of his miracles and resurrection. As such, “icon-thinking” and meditation on the artistic representations would have constituted a weak apologetic. The iconoclasts of early Christendom did not deny the object of the icons, but argued that the icons became idols, mere graven images that distracted one’s attention from the real person of Jesus Christ. How much more an icon based on false premises and absent evidence will mislead a scientist and obscure honest investigation. Like the icons of pagan gods adorning ancient temples, it substitutes a fantasy for the real world. These three Darwin Party soothsayers want to short-circuit the proof from evidence and train novitiates by having them meditate on the icons. They want computer programs, educational strategies and accessible representations of the products of their divination; they want to say, “believe, then interpret.” They want to push this Framework, this faith – indeed, this religion – in the schools, to raise a new crop of devotees and practitioners of The Craft. Such flagrant advocacy built on such shallow premises deserves a response in kind, from an iconoclast on that level. We quote the noted philosopher Biff: “Make like a tree, and get outta here.”(Visited 20 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The calendar may say that this is just the first few days of spring, but some wheat crops aren’t paying attention to the dates on the page.In some areas in central Ohio, wheat is already at Feekes growth stage 5, which in a typical year doesn’t happen until early April, said Laura Lindsey, a soybean and small grains specialist with Ohio State University Extension.OSU Extension is the outreach arm of the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University.The earlier growth stages for some Ohio winter wheat crops is thanks to the warm-up experienced in many areas of the state recently, Lindsey said.Ahead of schedule“Wheat growers can’t look to the calendar date this year to judge their crop’s growth stages simply because it’s been so warm recently,” she said. “We haven’t seen a year like this in recent times, so our recommendation is for growers to go out and check their wheat plants to judge their growth stages.“Wheat in some areas in central and south-central Ohio are already in Feekes growth stage 5, and some wheat crops in northwest Ohio are already at early green-up.” Lindsey said it is important for growers to track the growth stages of their wheat crops because management decisions are made based on the plant’s growth patterns.“Generally, Feekes growth stage 6 occurs in southern Ohio during early April,” she said.“However, with the abnormally warm temperatures, Feekes growth stage 6, which is also known as jointing, may occur weeks sooner. So it’s important that growers go out and stage the wheat now to understand where their crops are in their development to be able to make the right management choices.”Timing nitrogenOne of those management decisions is when to apply nitrogen to wheat, she said.“Wheat needs nitrogen at Feekes growth stage 6, which could be in about a week or two this year,” Lindsey said. “So, for some growers, now maybe the time to apply nitrogen.”To determine if wheat is in Feekes growth stage 6, growers can:• Dig up several clusters of tillers with roots and soil from multiple locations in the field.• Identify and select three to four primary tillers from each cluster – usually the largest tillers with the thickest stem.• Strip away and remove all the lower leaves, which are usually small and yellowish or dead leaves, exposing the base of the stem.• Look for the first node generally between 1 and 2 inches above the base of the stem. This node is usually seen as a slightly swollen area of a slightly different (darker) shade of green than the rest of the stem.A video on identifying Feekes growth stage 6 can also be viewed at youtube.com/watch?v=iukwznx4DPk.
Issue 5: No polyethylene covering the dirt floorThe crawl space has a bare dirt floor. The crawl space air is in communication with the interior of the home. Because there is no vapor barrier on the dirt floor, ground moisture evaporates into the crawl space air, raising the interior relative humidity.Required Corrections: To limit the entry of ground moisture and soil gas, the dirt floor should be covered with a polyethylene vapor barrier, with seams lapped and sealed. The edges of the polyethylene should be sealed to the foundation wall. If radon testing shows elevated radon levels, then a sub-slab depressurization system should be installed to exhaust soil gases to the exterior.Ideally, add a layer of horizontal rigid insulation to limit heat transfer to the ground. Protect the insulation with a concrete “rat slab.” Issue 1: Electrical cable isn’t securely stapledAt some point in the past, modern electrical cable was installed to serve a floor receptacle. The cable was not properly fastened to the structure, and drapes freely across a five-foot span. This is a code violation.Required Corrections: The cable should be rerouted and supported with staples meeting building code requirements. If necessary, replace the cable so that it can be correctly routed and supported. Last week, GBA published a photo of a crawl space in an old house under the headline, “What’s Wrong With This Picture?”The photo showed an unvented crawl space in a cold climate. The home was built in 1885. This crawl space is attached to an adjacent concrete-floored basement. The foundation walls are made of mortared limestone.Even in the small area captured in the photo, there are a number of problems that compromise energy efficiency, building durability, and life safety. Here are our answers to the question posed last week. Garrett Mosiman works as a Research Fellow for the Center for Sustainable Research at the University of Minnesota. He has a bachelor’s degree in architecture from Rice University and an M.S. in architecture, Sustainable Design Track, from the University of Minnesota. He is also a LEED Accredited Professional. Issue 4: No capillary break at the top of the foundation wallThere is untreated wood in contact with the masonry foundation, a common situation in houses of this age. There are no signs of a capillary break to prevent foundation moisture from wicking into the framing.Required Corrections: If the foundation drainage is good and the assembly is exposed to warm interior air for drying, the risk of wood rot is relatively low. However, insulating the rim-joist area on the interior can increase the risk of rot, since added insulation would lower the drying potential of the sill. If the homeowner plans to insulate this area on the interior, it’s worth considering the installation of a capillary break. If the area will be insulated on the exterior, a capillary break may not be necessary.First, verify that there is good site and soil drainage on the exterior side of the assembly. Lift the sill — a task that sounds more daunting than it is in practice — and install a capillary break (metal flashing or a rubber membrane). Then insulate on the interior using rigid foam or spray polyurethane foam. Issue 3: Knob-and-tube wiringThere is some knob-and-tube wiring. Although the wire appears to be cut, it’s impossible to tell by looking at it whether the wire is still live.Required Corrections: The wire should be removed back to a code-approved junction box. Consider eliminating all knob-and-tube wiring in the house. Issue 6: The crawl space walls are uninsulatedThe foundation walls are uninsulated.Required Corrections: The crawl space walls can be insulated with rigid foam or closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. Because there is no capillary break at the top of the masonry wall, exterior insulation is preferable to interior insulation. Issue 2: Asbestos insulationA hydronic heat pipe is wrapped with asbestos insulation. The asbestos lacks encapsulation to prevent contact with asbestos fibers. If this insulation is abraded, asbestos fibers will be released into the air. If these fibers are inhaled, they can lodge deep in the lungs, eventually leading to lung disease.Required Corrections: Hire a certified asbestos abatement contractor to remove the asbestos or stabilize it in place.
Check out these 3 easy ways you can use SFX to add depth to your next video.Cover image via Shutterstock.The proper use of a single sound can change the entire feel of your production. Your audience might not notice it, but their their viewing experience will be better for it.Let’s have a look at three ways you can use SFX to improve your next project. 1. AtmosphereUse ambient sound to help create an atmosphere. The ambiance is simply the background sounds of your environment, whether it’s a crowd at a football stadium, a chorus of frogs croaking in a swamp, or the low rumble of a thunderstorm. I love watching a film that relies heavily on ambiance and natural sound. It brings me right into the environment. Watch the video tutorial and see how I’ve added several sound effects to help create the atmosphere of the interior of a commercial airliner.2. Logos and GraphicsAgain, the sound effects you choose help to communicate a mood or feel. Just as visuals contribute to branding, so too can audio elements. I’ve just added a text graphic to my airline clip, and I want to use a sound effect to help reveal the graphic. To do this, I’ve simply timed an airplane ding sound to match up with the first frame of the text graphic. I could pull from a wide variety of other travel-related SFX to reveal my main graphic. You can search through a variety of sounds here.3. MovementWhether it’s a character moving through the scene or simply a camera movement, sound effects can add life. From a snap zoom to a swish pan, a punch or a swinging sword, a good sound effect can complement a camera move. In this example, I show a gear-up style sequence wherein I’m prepping a backpack. The short montage includes a rapid-fire edit of close-up shots of the backpack. By adding a few whip and whoosh sound effects, I can make an entertaining sequence.Download 15 Free Ambient SFXLooking for some ambient noise? Here are fifteen free ambient SFX from the extensive PremiumBeat SFX library. Like all our music and SFX, these free ambient tracks are royalty free, and you can use them in commercial or personal projects. Read more about the FREE SFX pack here.DOWNLOAD 15 FREE SFXNeed royalty free music and SFX? PremiumBeat.com has a massive library of exclusive tracks and over 100,000 sound effects. Explore our catalogue.
New Zealand were 331 for five in their first innings, in reply to India’s 487, at stumps on day three of the first cricket Test at Sardar Patel Stadium here on Saturday.Brief scores:India 1st innings : 487New Zealand 1st innings: 331 for five in 117.3 overs (Jesse Ryder 103, Kane Williamson batting 87, Ross Taylor 56, Brendon McCullum 65; Pragyan Ojha 2/80).In their innings yesterday, India scored 487 in the first innings with a career best knock of 69 by off-spinner Harbhajan Singh. NZ spinners Daniel Vettori, playing his 100th test, and Jeetan Patel shared seven wickets each.”I thought the New Zealand bowlers bowled very well,” Harbhajan said. “They are a good side and it will take some effort from us to win this match. Thankfully, we have enough runs on the board.”In the morning session, Patel took the important wickets of VVS Laxman and Sachin Tendulkar as India scored only 63 runs in 30.2 overs on a slow pitch not conducive for stroke-play.Laxman and Tendulkar made 40 apiece in a partnership of 66 for the fourth wicket, but the pair took its time, adding just 29 runs in the first hour.Tendulkar, 13 overnight, was unable to keep the scoreboard ticking as Vettori employed a short mid-wicket and short extra cover to prevent singles.Tendulkar departed when he tried to break the shackles, advancing down the pitch to a Patel delivery, but delivering an easy chest-high return catch. Tendulkar faced 133 deliveries and hit five fours.”I am happy with our effort because this is not a spin track and the ball is only keeping low,” said Patel. “I am particularly happy to have dismissed Tendulkar as it is probably the biggest wicket of my career.”advertisementLaxman, 7 overnight, was trapped lbw at the stroke of lunch.Left-hander Suresh Raina fell for 3 as he failed to judge the pace of the ball and gave an easy catch to McCullum at short cover off Kane Williamson in the other wicket to fall in the morning session.Mahendra Singh Dhoni (10) and Zaheer Khan (1) did not do much in the second session, leaving Harbhajan and Pragyan Ojha to unexpectedly boost their side in a 66-run stand for the ninth wicket.Harbhajan, whose previous highest score was 66 against Zimbabwe at Bulawayo in 2001, hit five fours and three sixes.”The pitch is very slow and I am happy to have got runs when they mattered,” said Harbhajan. “But my job (of taking wickets) is still left and this is just a bonus.”He didn’t take a wicket in his first five overs, but seamer Zaheer removed opener Tim McIntosh for a duck, and left-arm spinner Ojha bowled BJ Watling for 6.- With inputs from AP
German reports suggest that online on-demand service Hulu is preparing a launch in Germany.The US company is backed by Disney, NBC and News Corp and the only international market that it has launched in to date is Japan. However, local press report that it is in talks with German broadcasters RTL and ProSiebenSat.1 to get rights to German content and launch in the country.In the US the Hulu service is free with a premium option while in Japan it is a subscription-based offer and market-watchers said it is likely to replicate this with any other international roll outs.
The BBC has commissioned a series of eight new comedy pilots for its video-on-demand service the iPlayer.The comedies were ordered by youth-skewing network BBC3, which also ordered six short dramas for the VOD service earlier this year. Both are designed to showcase up-and-coming talent.The comedy pilots are: Bamboo, about “two posh idiots” who try and set up a nightclub; Kerry, a multicharacter sketch-show; puppet show Fuzzbox; C Bomb, about “the godfather of the South Yorkshire dubstep scene”; Another sketch show called The Cariad Show; studio based comedy show Nick Helm’s Heavy Entertainment; The Committee, about the committee meeting of a Welsh social club; and mocumentary Going Native.At the same time BBC3 also ordered a string of comedy series for its linear channel, including a third season of Pramface and Uncle, a new series from production company Baby Cow starring Nick Helm as the world’s most irresponsible uncle – based on a mockumentary piloted on BBC iPlayer last year called People Just Do Nothing (w/t).BBC3 ordered a string of online comedy pilots last year. Meanwhile, last month, the corporation also announced it will debut a new Peter Kay-starring comedy series on the iPlayer before it broadcasts on TV, as part of its original content commitment to its online service.The show will be the first full BBC series to air online before linear TV, and comes after the corporation announced in February that it will launch 40 hours of content on its catch-up service in the next year before it airs on TV.
PROFIT/LOSS SINCE JAN 1 2017: PROFIT 179.72 points(not including Premier League ante-post, or cricket) Tottenham’s Champions League adventure has been a very disappointing one for them so far, but the bookmakers expect them to pick up a first European win of the campaign against PSV at Wembley.Spurs have just one point so far from their three games, but they ought to have beaten Inter on the opening matchday and arguably they were even unluckier not to take three points from the reverse fixture a fortnight ago. They dominated the game from start to finish only for two errors -the first from Toby Alderweireld and the second from Hugo Lloris – Spurs had 71% possession, won the shout count 24-11 and had 9 shots on target compared to three for the hosts.Since then Tottenham have won two of their three games, the only defeat coming to the brilliant Manchester City, and their position as favourites is understandable.PSV however, have been improving and their performance against Spurs was definitely a superior performance to their defeats against Barcelona (lost 4-0 at Nou Camp) or Inter (lost 2-1 at home), regardless of the gap between the two in the group. Mark Van Bommel’s young side are improving with every game at elite level, and a 1-0 victory over Vitesse Arnhem made it 11 from 11 in the Eredivisie, a record only PSG can match.They also have some standout players, with Hirving Lozano having made his mark on this stage already whilst Luuk De Jong’s goal against Vitesse at the weekend made it four in four for him. Van Bommel can also call upon Steven Bergwijn now, meaning he can give Tottenham’s fullbacks plenty to think about.Pochettino has a full attacking compliment following Dele Alli’s return to action but defensively there are issues. Hugo Lloris as a result of his red card in the reverse meeting, meaning a fifth start of the season for Paulo Gazzaniga in goal, whilst Jan Vertonghen, Victor Wanyama and Vincent Janssen are all out injured. Add Danny Rose and Eric Dier to the list and PSV will feel they can make a mark.Tottenham Hotspur v PSV EindhovenUEFA Champions League Group Stage20:00 BT Sport 2 / BT Sport 4K UHDHEAD TO HEAD RECORD(Maximum 10 matches)OCT 2018 CHAMPIONS LEAGUE PSV 2-2 TottenhamMAR 2008 UEFA CUP PSV 0-1 TottenhamMAR 2008 UEFA CUP Tottenham 0-1 PSVSpurs have kept three clean sheets in their last 13 games, with two of them against relegation contenders, and no side has faced more shots than PSV, who have not kept a clean sheet so far in the tournament. Bookmakers are aware of this with over 2.5 goals at just 40/85 and over 3.5 goals at just 23/20. Spurs should be strong enough to win this at home, so the 13/8 on them winning with both teams scoring looks to be the bet.RECOMMENDED BETS (scale of 1-100 points)BACK SPURS TO WIN AND BTTS 5 points at 13/8 with starsports.bet